Jharkhand is one of the empowered action group state, continues to share a number of characteristics with other backward states of India such as high infant mortality, low immunization of children and expectant mothers, high mortality due to infectious and contagious diseases, high maternal mortality and low institutional delivery. These coupled with poor accessibility to health care facilities and high cost of treatment have made all the achievements in health sector insignificant. Despite the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Government’s commitment to improve the availability of and access to quality health care by people, especially for those residing in the rural area, the improvement in public health care services in the states has not shown marked improvement in public health indicators. Many factors contribute to the poor health status including poverty, poor infrastructure and high morbidity. Poverty associated communicable diseases like tuberculosis and malaria along with maternal mortality and morbidity comprise a major portion of the disease burden. Malaria is endemic with Sequent epidemic outbreaks of Plasmodium falciparum malaria (about 50%). Over 60,000 deaths occur every year due to tuberculosis. Prevalence of leprosy is 10 per 10,100. 60 percent of infant deaths are neo-natal deaths. Only 52 percent children are fully immunised (as per CES, 2007) and 35 percent according to NFHS-III. About 78 percent of children were anaemic (NFHS-III, 2005-06) and 59 percent of children below three years of age were underweight. In Jharkhand, for every 100,000 live births 208 mothers die during delivery, compared to the national rate of 178, while the under-five mortality rate among children is at a high 51 per thousand live births, according to the state health department. Maternal mortality was high at 371 per 100,000 live births (SRS, 2003). Around 45 percent women have reproductive health problems and 30 percent women complain of reproductive tract infection. About 70 percent of women in Jharkhand were anaemic and about 30 percent of them were moderately to severely anaemic. According to state government figure among all pregnant women, antenatal care was received by only 38 47 percent (whereas NFHS-III shows 36%), IFA consumption was 15 percent (NFHS-1II) and 50 percent received tetanus toxoid injection. Nearly 80 percent deliveries take place at home. Only 31% of all couple use any modem methods of family planning (NFHS-III). Permanent sterilization particularly female sterilization dominates (23%) and total unmet need for family planning was as high as 24%. More than 90% expectant mothers in rural areas are unaware of health and nutrition issues, the Jharkhand Economic Survey 2015-16 has shown. The state has one of the country’s worst maternal mortality rates.
SIGN takes Health education as one of the strategies for implementing health promotion and disease prevention programs. Health education provides learning experiences on health topics. Health education strategies are tailored for their target population. SIGN imparts Health education on hygiene and cleanliness practices to schoolchildren and teachers, whereas adolescent girls are given health education on physical changes and the knowledge to handle the changes. They are also given information on sexual reproductive health. SIGN plays vital role in strengthening linkages between Government Health Services (i.e., ANM, Sahiyas) and the Community. SIGN promotes visits of Malnutrition Treatment Center (MTC), Regular Immunization and colostrums feeding among pregnant women and lactating mothers. Besides theses, SIGN determined to promotes good health i.e., health resources are evenly distributed and that essential health care is accessible to everyone.